Volume 4 (2), December 2021, Pages 206-231

Iqra Rashid, Javeria Naz

COMSATS University Islamabad, Wah Campus, Pakistan, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it., This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.


In recent years breast cancer detection has been the most popular research topic in medical image analysis. It is the most common malignancy in women, and men can also be affected. Conferring to the American Cancer Society, in 2019, almost two million new cases were registered, and the death rate was almost 41,000. The death rate can be reduced if the cancer is timely diagnosed. For cancer detection, different modalities are used, like MRI, ultrasound, and mammography. The most common and popular modality is mammography. A mammogram shows breast irregularities that are benign or malignant. In digital mammography, it is not easy to extract accurate breast regions. The main problem in the extraction region of concern is pectoral muscle suppression. The pectoral muscle appears in the breast area. Sometimes it is marked as an area of attention that causes a false positive rate. It is essential to eradicate pectoral muscles from the breast. This manuscript overviews the introduction of basic breast cancer terminologies. The work also analyzes state-of-the-insight imaging procedures used for breast cancer analysis.


Breast cancer, Mammogram, Pectoral muscle, Segmentation and Classification.

DOI: https://doi.org/10.32010/26166127.2021.




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